Genetic Engineering, Johns Hopkins 2014, Biomedical and Cancer Research

Joined November 2021
Polyuria People with POLYURIA urinate X > 3,000mL in 24 hours. This is usually caused by there being too much WATER filtered by the KIDNEYS. It can also happen if something is in the urine, pulling the extra water out, such as SUGAR (GLUCOSE). - clevelandclinic
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Although the effect is variable, serum GLUCOSE levels above 250 mg/dL are likely to cause symptoms of POLYURIA and POLYDIPSIA. Note: dL stands for Deciliter 1 Deciliter = 100 mL - Sapra, A. et al. Bookshelf ID:NBK551501
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Polydipsia - POL · Y · DIP · SI · A /ˌpälēˈdipsēə/ Abnormally great THIRST as a symptom of disease (such as DIABETES) or psychological disturbance. - Oxford Languages
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Without the BALANCE between INSULIN and GLUCAGON the GLUCOSE levels become inappropriately skewed. In the case of DIABETES MELLITUS insulin is either absent and/or has impaired action (insulin resistance) and thus leads to HYPERGLYCEMIA. - Sapra, A. et al. Bookshelf ID:NBK551501
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In the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the PANCREAS, there are two main sub-classes of endocrine cells: INSULIN-producing BETA cells ( β cells ) and GLUCAGON-secreting ALPHA cells ( α cells ). - Sapra, A. et al. Bookshelf ID:NBK551501
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If the TUMOR is in the BODY or TAIL of the PANCREAS, PAIN and WEIGHT LOSS might be more likely. PANCREATIC CANCER in the body or tail can also take longer to present with symptoms, allowing the tumor more time to grow or METASTASIZE before it’s found. - hopkinsmedicine
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The location of a TUMOR in the PANCREAS affects the types of symptoms and how soon they might start to show. For example, JAUNDICE symptoms may appear when the tumor obstructs the HEAD OF THE PANCREAS. - hopkinsmedicine
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PANCREATIC CANCER can destroy the cells that make INSULIN, causing BLOOD SUGAR levels to rise. While cancer is most likely not the culprit, a patient with a new and suspicious DIABETES diagnosis should be evaluated to rule out pancreatic cancer. - hopkinsmedicine
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a METABOLIC disease, involving inappropriately elevated BLOOD-GLUCOSE levels. Main subtypes of DM are Type 1 and Type 2, which classically result from defective insulin secretion (T1DM) and/or action (T2DM). - pp.Sapra, A. et al. Bookshelf ID:NBK551501
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Mering + Minkowski in 1889 discovered the role of the PANCREAS in the pathogenesis of DIABETES. In 1922 Banting, Best and Collip purified the HORMONE INSULIN leading to the availability of an effective treatment for diabetes in 1922. - pp.Sapra, A. et al. Bookshelf ID:NBK551501
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It's ridiculous it's absurd. It's unnecessary it's criminal, it's not even controversial. It's risible it's inane. It's gratuitous it's iniquitous, it's not even debatable. It's grotesque, monstrous and obscene. It's treachery, it's duplicity. It's skulduggery.
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DIABETES MELLITUS is taken from the Greek word diabetes, meaning siphon-to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning sweet. A review of the history shows the term "diabetes" was 1st used by Apollonius of Memphis around 250-300 BC. -Sapra, A. et al. Bookshelf ID:NBK551501
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The function of the INSULIN receptor is to facilitate the uptake of GLUCOSE from the BLOOD STREAM through special glucose transport proteins that are normally present inside the cell in an inactive form. - sphweb bumc bu edu - Image: intechopen
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In muscle cells, GLUCOSE transporter is "GLUT4". When INSULIN binds to ALPHA subunits of the receptor it triggers a chain reaction in the cytosol (interior of cell) that activates GLUT4 and causes it to be translocated and inserted into the CELL MEMBRANE. - sphweb bumc bu edu
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There are signal proteins, e.g., hormone INSULIN, which consists of 2 polypeptide chains linked together with disulfide (sulfur) bridges. Insulin receptor (a recognition protein) is embedded in cell membranes of muscle, fat, and certain types of other cells. - sphweb bumc bu edu
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I know.....I'm a nerd.
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Another healthy cricketer......dead at 36 of a heart attack......I don't know......."Houston, it looks like we've got a problem"...
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Glucose - Illustration showing alpha and beta forms - biologyaqaalevelnotes
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INSULIN Schematic drawing of HUMAN INSULIN and its 3D structure (inset). The A-chain is shown in blue, and the B-chain in green. The intra- and inter-chain DISULFIDE BRIDGES between CYSTEINE residues are shown in yellow. - pdb101 rcsb org
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Former BBC Presenter Mark Mardell Reveals he has Parkinson's Disease... Incurable condition in which parts of the brain become progressively damaged over many years. Its three main symptoms are involuntary shaking, slow movement and stiff and inflexible muscles. - The Telegraph
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